# Operators¶

An operator is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical functions. C language is rich in built-in operators and provides the following types of operators −

• Arithmetic Operators
• Comparison Operators
• Boolean Operators
• Bitwise Operators
• Compound Operators

# Arithmetic Operators¶

Operator name Operator simple Description Example
assignment operator = Stores the value to the right of the equal sign in the variable to the left of the equal sign. A = B
addition + Adds two operands A + B will give 30
subtraction - Subtracts second operand from the first A - B will give -10
multiplication * Multiply both operands A * B will give 200
division / Divide numerator by denominator B / A will give 2
modulo % Modulus Operator and remainder of after an integer division B % A will give 0

### Example¶

void loop () {
int a = 9,b = 4,c;
c = a + b;
c = a - b;
c = a * b;
c = a / b;
c = a % b;
}


### Result¶

a + b = 13
a - b = 5
a * b = 36
a / b = 2
Remainder when a divided by b = 1


# Comparison Operators¶

Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then

Operator name Operator simple Description Example
equal to == Checks if the value of two operands is equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true. (A == B) is not true
not equal to != Checks if the value of two operands is equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true. (A != B) is true
less than < Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (A < B) is true
greater than > Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (A > B) is not true
less than or equal to <= Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (A <= B) is true
greater than or equal to >= Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (A >= B) is not true

### Example¶

void loop () {
int a = 9,b = 4
bool c = false;
if(a == b)
c = true;
else
c = false;

if(a != b)
c = true;
else
c = false;

if(a < b)
c = true;
else
c = false;

if(a > b)
c = true;
else
c = false;

if(a <= b)
c = true;
else
c = false;

if(a >= b)
c = true;
else
c = false;
}


### Result¶

c = false
c = true
c = false
c = true
c = false
c = false


# Boolean Operators¶

Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then −

Operator name Operator simple Description Example
and && Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non-zero then then condition becomes true. (A && B) is true
or || Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands is non-zero then then condition becomes true. (A || B) is true
not ! Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true then Logical NOT operator will make false. !(A && B) is false

### Example¶

void loop () {
int a = 9,b = 4
bool c = false;
if((a > b)&& (b < a))
c = true;
else
c = false;

if((a == b)|| (b < a))
c = true;
else
c = false;

if( !(a == b)&& (b < a))
c = true;
else
c = false;
}


### Result¶

c = true
c = true
c = true


# Bitwise Operators¶

Assume variable A holds 60 and variable B holds 13 then −

Operator name Operator simple Description Example
and & Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. (A & B) will give 12 which is 0000 1100
or | Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand (A | B) will give 61 which is 0011 1101
xor ^ Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. (A ^ B) will give 49 which is 0011 0001
not ~ Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits. (~A ) will give -60 which is 1100 0011
shift left << Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. A << 2 will give 240 which is 1111 0000
shift right >> Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. A >> 2 will give 15 which is 0000 1111

### Example¶

void loop () {
int a = 10,b = 20
int c = 0;
c = a & b ;
c = a | b ;
c = a ^ b ;
c = a ~ b ;
c = a << b ;
c = a >> b ;
}


### Result¶

c = 12
c = 61
c = 49
c = -60
c = 240
c = 15


# Compound Operators¶

Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then −

Operator name Operator simple Description Example
increment ++ Increment operator, increases integer value by one A++ will give 11
decrement -- Decrement operator, decreases integer value by one A-- will give 9
compound addition += Add AND assignment operator. It adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operand B += A is equivalent to B = B+ A
compound subtraction -= Subtract AND assignment operator. It subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operand B -= A is equivalent to B = B - A
compound multiplication *= Multiply AND assignment operator. It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operand B= A is equivalent to B = B A
compound division /= Divide AND assignment operator. It divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operand B /= A is equivalent to B = B / A
compound modulo %= Modulus AND assignment operator. It takes modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operand B %= A is equivalent to B = B % A
compound bitwise or |= bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operator A |= 2 is same as A = A | 2
compound bitwise and &= Bitwise AND assignment operator A &= 2 is same as A = A & 2

### Example¶

void loop () {
int a = 10,b = 20
int c = 0;

a++;
a--;
b += a;
b -= a;
b *= a;
b /= a;
a %= b;
a |= b;
a &= b;
}


### Result¶

a = 11
a = 9
b = 30
b = 10
b = 200
b = 2
a = 0
a = 0
a = 30